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Ibn Kammūna, Saʿd Ibn Manṣūr

Piety and Ethics 7. Moreover, changing the title of a book in mid-course without any justification all agree, for example, that Ibn Kammuna himself gave no title to the work commonly referred to as the New Wisdom introduces confusion with no compensatory payoff.

Tzvi Langermann – – Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15 2: Marrone – – Brill. Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. The Kalimat is dedicated to a Muslim patron, and it kammuba and naturally reads as a work of Muslim piety.

Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPaperswith links to its database.

And, indeed, as Lukas Muehlethaler has shown in a series of publications, Ibn Kammuna labored to shore up the demonstrations of psychological doctrines throughout. However, one should not make too much of this. Ibn Kammuna was certainly born into a Jewish family.

But is this the way his writings present themselves to the reader who is innocent of academic scholarship? Like so many other features of his work, it can be understood only in the context of the Avicennan legacy. His discourse on these issues is philosophical. However, on close inspection, there is nothing distinctly Muslim about it.

Throughout his life Avicenna struggled with the complex of problems ensuing from his insight, especially in the realms of psychology and epistemology, without ever arriving at a satisfactory solution. These vary from person to person, just as bodily endowments vary.

Although it is repeatedly invoked as the source for scientific knowledge, hads is not a tool of scientific inquiry, but rather a way of explaining, post factohow a thinker hit upon the solution to a difficult problem. Tzvi Langermann – – Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15 2. Both treatises display a thorough integration of religious and philosophical ideas and ideals. Ibn Kammuna has clearly mastered both idioms. The glosses are written in a the highly technical language of Islamic theology, which is very different from the philosophical diction he uses in other writings.


Here, too, Judah Halevi and Maimonides are drawn upon extensively, and the author stresses that his is a new approach. Find it on Scholar.

Moshe Perlmann Berkeley and Los Angeles,pp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This treatise is concise in length but encyclopedic in character. Though the Examination should not be classified as a polemical work, as it contains no outright attack on any faith, its pro-Jewish bias is quite evident. Here, however, Ibn Kammuna adds adds an important point. Many of the latter exceed others in quantity and quality; but there is no limit, at which one must perforce stop. MGWJ69—; L. However, at the high end of the spectrum, there exists a human soul whose cognitive ability is for all practical purposes unlimited.

Earlier editions must not be dismissed as worthless unless one can provide examples to prove such an extreme claim. What remains, then, is to compare the claims that are particular to each of the three faiths. Medal of Freedom Recipients.

Ibn Kammuna – Wikipedia

All of this is known through experience to the person who finds it within himself, and by recurrence along with intuition to the one who is endowed Musawip. But did he remain Jewish until his death? In developing this theme, Ibn Kammuna makes the bold claim that hads is the ultimate basis of all human knowledge. On the other hand, he evidently accepted some of the criticisms leveled at Avicenna by Abu-l-Barakat al-Baghdadi and Fakhr al-Din al-Razi.

Praxis and science reinforce each other in a specific way: Some but not all can be traced to known writings of Ibn Kammuna. There is thus a distinct and immediate spiritual reward for praxis, even for—perhaps especially for—the enlightened.


Things thus trace back without a doubt to intuitions which the masters [of intuition] arrived at. Much of his legacy, contained in the form of commentaries, correspondence, and treatise still survives today and makes up part of the historical remnants of his time.

On the other hand, no Jewish reaction of any sort to the Examination has reached us. Mystical Intuition, Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi d. Other passages afford us an opportunity to sample how hads is employed in various scientific, or, as we would judge today, occult contexts. His special interest in studying the soul nafs calls for explanation. Dr Lwiis Saliba has reissued the Tanqih al-Abhath Examination the Three Faithspublished by Byblion, in Byblos, Lebanon ; a second printing was made already in in a volume of nearly pages, provided with a detailed introduction and copious notes, all in Arabic, but with a very good command of academic publications in European languages.

Moreover, whether or not hads is specifically mentioned, intuition or spontaneous comprehension is paired to tajriba. History of Western Philosophy. Hads indicates to astronomers, even where logical necessity does not, that the planets require more than one orb in order to complete their motions [ed.

Ibn Kammuna’s Examination of the three faiths

Philosophy East and West 22 4: This approach is totally at odds with the Aristotelianism that, in all of its flavors, was the foundation of Islamic philosophies. Waterhouse – – Philosophy 16 In the work of later thinkers, including Ibn Kammuna, the evaluation of hads served to legitimize alchemy and astrology and, more generally, to blur the distinction between demonstrative knowledge and revelation.

In general, the conception of the deity is informed more by His goodness and bounty than it is by His power and judgment.