A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].
One might describe the system thekry articles in both French and English as containing a term zero. But sequence is relevant in English and we therefore count it as a feature of the structure, and say that, in this respect, too, structure-shift occurs in the translation. Language-behaviour is externalized or mani- fested in some kind of bodily activity on the part of a performerand presupposes the existence of at least one other human participant in the situation, an addressee.
HC — me, Q has 4 common features. Starting from v the assumption that any process concerned with human language can be illuminated by applying to it the latest insights into the nature of language, the author outlines a current British frame-work of descriptive o and applies it to the analysis of translation.
The following, for instance, is a graphological translation from a cursive Roman into Arabic: This illustrates another case, like those j.c.catfrd in 7.
Kurt rated it it was amazing Apr translarion, Traslation, then, embedded in an English TL text, or, now, simply in an English text, sputnik has an English formal and contextual meaning. In English grammar we have units such as sentence, clause and group: In normal total translation the SL phonology is not translated, but merely replaced by whatever non-equivalent TL phonology is entailed by the selection of TL grammatical and lexical items.
As distinct from the English bath, which is normally a solitary activity, the Finnish and Japanese baths are, or may often be, communal. The total co-text will supply information which the translator will use in coming to a decision, but it is difficult to define functional relevance in general terms.
The Burushin is now replaced by his sister. On the one hand, throry is manifested filled simultaneously by the same biological individual: Full can be unmarked: The various formal relations into which a form enters constitute its formal meaning. History of Western Philosophy. Sign in to use this feature.
J — hre No single letter equivalent. Refresh and try again. Catford is widely regarded as the leading practical phonetician of our time, and is currently Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the University of Michigan. An SL group may have a Linguixtic clause as its translation equivalent, and so on.
A decision, in any particular case, as to what is functionally relevant in this sense must in our present state of knowledge remain to some linguistif a matter of opinion. It is rarely the same in any two languages, and it is, moreover, related to formal meaning; thus, if we have two systems containing different numbers of terms and hence differing as to the formal meanings of these terms we will find that 2 In the Saussurean sense: Where have you come j.c.catforr By superimposing these two system-diagrams we get an indica- jj.c.catford of translation equivalences: This is virtually untranslatable into English because a comparable j.c.catfogd ex- ponence does not occur — Lower may occur as a place-name element, but it is not normally used by itself as an abbreviation.
The concept of rank and rank scale is an important one both in theoretical linguistics and in many applications of linguistics, including translation-theory. But the marked terms napisal — was writing are mutually untranslatable. Thus, if we are going to attribute any structure at all to English nominal groups we must set up three elements: Literal 3 Never mind about them! In the Ngp the man in the moon, which has the structure MHQ, the exponent of Q is the rank-shifted Adverbial group in the moon.
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The whole passage can thus be translated: These are amongst the most frequent category shifts at all ranks in translation; they occur translatino phono- logical j.c.cafford graphological translation as well as in total translation. As with registers, so with styles, translatability depends on the existence of an equivalent style in the TL.
The exponents of elements of sentence-structure are clauses. This is what one might expect in the case of a pair of languages which are both typologically and genetically very different; more precisely, the divergence shown here may be taken to be a symptom of typological difference, which parallels genetic unrelatedness.
Both types of meaning are discussed in Chapter 5. The following system-diagrams roughly indicate the formal differ- ences and translation equivalences.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language & Language Learning)
J.c.catfrd following are examples of sentences, each carrying the same pattern of arrangement of clauses. Using the set of English colour terms, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Purple, we can set up an approximate translation-equivalence diagram as follows: No English garment, for instance, is worn both in bed and in the street except in emergencies and certainly no garment is supplied by English hotels to their guests.
Secondary elements of Ngp structure, at M are d, o, and c already exemplified in 1. On any given occasion, the particular vocal movements and the resultant sound-waves can be described with a delicacyor depth of detail, limited only by the delicacy of the apparatus used for observation and analysis. Con- version from spoken to written medium, or vice-versa, is a universal practice among literates; but it is not translation, since it is not replacement by items which are equivalent because of relationship to the same substance.
This is PREFACE inevitable in a book on a specialized topic, but it should not dismay the general reader since the main arguments demand little or no previous knowledge of linguistic science and the first chapter may be used for reference when required. thwory
K r NK a top, stop, stops, etc. For the purpose of Machine Translation, translation linyuistic may be operational instructions for co-textual search for items marked in the machine glossary by particular diacritics, with instructions to print out the particular conditioned equivalent in each case.
The exponent of T is a foot, or more than one foot, which carries one of a system of five contrastive tones’, the dis- tinctive tone starts on the first syllable of the first foot of the tonic.
This, again, illustrates a phenomenon found in total translation.
A formal correspondent, on the other hand, is any TL category unit, class, structure, element of structure, etc. These limits are summed up in two generaliza- tions: Translation equivalence, as we have seen in 7. We use the term intra-system shift for those cases where the shift occurs internally, within a system; that is, for those cases where SL and TL possess systems which approximately corres- pond formally as to their constitution, but when translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL system.
For instance, in a novel, idiolectal features in the dialogue of one character may be worked into the plot; other characters may remark on these, and they may partly j.c.cayford to identify the character.